第 1 页:听力
第 3 页:词汇理解
第 5 页:长篇阅读
第 6 页:仔细阅读
第 8 页:写作
第 9 页:翻译

  第三篇:Leadership Literature

  原文出自《BUSINESS INSIDER》(Business+Insider)


  What does the author think the leaders he knows?

  A. Many of them are used to taking charge.(他们中的很多人习惯于掌控)

  B. Few of them are equal to their positions.(他们中很少有人配得上自己的职位)

  C. Many of them fail to fully develop their potential.(他们中的很多人没有完全开发自己的潜力)

  D. Few of them are familiar with leadership literature.(他们中很少有人熟悉领导手册)

  题目问作者是如何看待他所认识的领导者的。通过顺序原则和定位词the leaders he knows可以找到文章第二段的第一句,I see way fewer truly effective leaders than I see people stuck in positions of leadership who are sadly incompetent and seriously misguided about their own abilities.注意这句话里的way并不是我们所熟知的名词含义“方法”,而是一个程度副词,类似于“相当地”。这句话的大致意思就是“相比于那些真正高效的领导者,我见到更多的是处在领导者的位置却却总是被自己的无能给蒙蔽的人”。B选项即为这句话的同义改写。


  Why are some people eager to grab leadership positions?

  A. They believe they have the natural gift to lead.(他们认为自己有天生的领导才能)

  B. They believe in what leadership literature says.(他们相信领导手册说的东西)

  C. They have proved competent in many situations.(他们在很多情况下都被证明是无能的)

  D. They derive great satisfaction from being leaders.(他们在做领导时感受到极度的不满)

  题目问为什么很多人总是热衷于领导职位。这道题是因果细节题,常规的解决方法是通过题干路标词定位,再在定位句附近寻找因果逻辑词锁定答案。通过grab leadership position定位到第四段第二句Whether it’s a decision-making session, a basketball game, a family outing, they can’t help grabbing the lead dog position and cling to it for dear life. 这句话意思不难理解,说的就是很多人领导欲很强不管是在什么场合之下。往后一句话直接道破了他们这样做的原因。They believe they are natural born leaders. A选项同义改写,为正选。


  What characterizes a great leader according to the author?

  A. Being able to take prompt action when chances present themselves.(当机会自己出现时能做出及时的反应)

  B. Having a whole-hearted dedication to their divine responsibilities.(全身心地奉献给他们神圣的责任)

  C. Having a full understanding of their own merits and weaknesses.(对自己的优点和缺点有深刻的理解)

  D. Being able to assess the situation carefully before taking charge.(能在掌控之前仔细评估形势)

  题目问根据作者,什么最能够用来形容一个成功的领导者。通过great leaders直接定位到文章第五段第四句。A great leader will assess each situation on its merits, and will only take charge when their position, the situation, and/or the needs of the moment demand it.这句话很明显就是作者对于成功领导者的描述,所以答案不言而喻,一个成功的领导者懂得审时度势,再决定是否应该掌控一切。所以D为正选。


  How will many business executives respond when their command fails to generate action?

  A. They reassess the situation at hand.(他们会重新估计当下的形势)

  B. They become impatient and rude.(他们变的不耐烦和粗鲁)

  C. They resort to any tool available.(他们会使用任何可用的工具)

  D. They blame their team members.(他们会埋怨自己的团队成员)

  题目问当命令没有落实到行动时,很多经理是如何反应的。通过many business executives 定位到第六段第一句话,Many business executives confuse leadership with action. 这句话并没有直接体现答案,所以我们可以适当地往后读。第三句话写到Faced with any situation can’t be solved by the sheer force of activity, they generate a dust cloud of impatience.意思是“当遇到没法全凭行动来解决的问题时,他们就会变得极度不耐烦”。这句话基本对应了B选项的impatient,但是还不够。再往后一句话,Their one leadership tool is volume: if they think you are not working as hard as they think you should, their demands become increasingly louder and harsher. “声音是他们的领导工具之一,如果他们认为你没有像他们期望的那么努力工作,他们的命令就会变得越来越大声和刺耳”。这一句话对应的是B里的rude。所以B为正选。


  What is the author’s advice to leaders?

  A. Concentrate on one specific task at a time.(同时只专注于一个特定的任务)

  B. Use different tools to achieve different goals.(用不同的工具来实现不同的目标)

  C. Build up s strong team to achieve their goals.(建立一个强大的团队来实现他们的目标)

  D. Show determination when faced with tough tasks.(面临艰巨的任务时体现出强烈的决心)

  题目问作者对于领导的建议是什么。做完前面四道题还有最后两段话没有用于定位,所以完全可以把两段话都快速读一遍。本题的答案出自最后一句话。A true leader is someone who develops his or her team so that they can and do hit their targets and achieve their goals. C选项就是整句话的同义改写,为正选。ABD均为无中生有。



  What does the author of the passage think of Millennials?

  A. They show little interest in entertainment.(他们对于娱乐活动没什么兴趣)

  B. They are not confident about their ability.(他们对自己的能力不自信)

  C. They enjoy an easy life due to high technology.(因为高科技他们能享受轻松的生活)

  D. They may not have bright prospects for success.(他们可能不会有成功的希望)

  题目问作者如何看待“千禧一代”的。这篇文章比较特殊,几乎每个题里都有Millennials这个词,所以很难用它来进行准确地定位,我们只能依靠顺序原则按照段落一段一段地去找答案。文章第一段话提到一个人叫作Joel Stein的人,他认为Millennials这一代人的还是有潜力的,但第二段的开头作者说到I hesitate to share his optimism…说他对于分享这份乐观有点犹豫,意味着他觉得他们这代人并不是optimistic的。D选项就是这句话的同义改写。ABC属于无中生有的干扰项。


  How do Millennials feel about their life?

  A. They can hardly do anything about it.(他们几乎不能做任何事)

  B. There is little in it to get excited about.(很少有能让他们感觉兴奋的事)

  C. It is not as good as their parents’.(不如他们父母的生活好)

  D. It is full of opportunities for success.(充满了成功的机会)

  这道题难度比较大,最关键的还是像第一题说的,很难进行定位,所以我们依然只能按照顺序原则往下看。第二段的最后半句说…,yet we are more bored than ever before. 意思是“我们前所未有的无聊”,与B选项的…little in it to get excited about.完全对应。再来看其他几个选项,A,文章第五段首句说到But do Millennials respond to these economic troubles by doing whatever it takes to make ends meet? Hardly? 很多同学可能会脑一热就选了这个答案,但问题是文章说的是“他们几乎不会…”而选项则是“他们几乎不能…”,这并不是一个概念。而且题目问的是他们的态度,A更像是描述一个现状,所以A排除。再往后看,C选项出自于第四句话Millennials want to save the world, but they sit and wait for that world-changing opportunity to be handed to them. 意思是“这些人想要拯救世界但只是坐着等改变世界的机会自己降临”。但D选项的full of并没有在文中体现,所以也可以排除。C选项在最后一句有提及,Millennials may the first generation to have a lower standard of living than their parents…但此处是作者的评价而非Millennials自己的态度。C也排除。因此正选为B


  In what way are Millennials different from previous generations according to Pew Research?

  A. They spend less time socializing.(他们花很少的时间社交)

  B. They are indifferent to others.(他们对别人漠不关心)

  C. They do not value hard work.(他们不重视努力工作)

  D. They are more independent.(他们更加独立)

  题目问根据Pew Research, Millennials在哪些方面不同于他们的先辈。通过路标词Pew Research直接定位到第五段的第二句,…the Millennial generation does not cite work ethic as distinctive of itself.意思就是这一辈人并不把努力工作当作非常重要的事。锁定C选项。


  What should Millennials do according to the author?

  A. Remain optimistic in face of adversity.(在面临逆境时仍然保持乐观)

  B. Start a business as early as possible.(尽早开始创业)

  C. Make full use of new opportunities.(充分利用新的机会)

  D. Take action to change their situation.(采取行动来改变他们的现状)

  题目问根据作者的说法,Millennials应该怎么做。这道题的答案出自第五段第五句,Instead of working 2-3 jobs, launching a business, or doing what is takes to succeed, they retreat. 意思是“并没有兼两三份工作,也没有开始创业或者做能让他们成功的事,他们只是撤退。”通过instead of 这个短语我们也应该知道作者的态度是他们就应该多找几份工作,开始创作或者做些别的事情。AC选项无中生有们可以排除。B里的start a business文中有提及但并没有说as early as possible,也排除。所以D为正选。


  Why are Millennials over-confident about themselves?

  A. They have been spoiled by their parents.(他们被父母宠坏了)

  B. They can always get whatever they expect.(他们想要什么就能得到什么)

  C. They are misguided by management books.(他们被管理手册误导了)

  D. They think they are young and energetic.(他们认为自己年轻而且精力充沛)

  题目问什么Millennials那么自负。这道题相对简单,按照顺序原则定位到全文最后一句,Today’s young adults were raised by parents who made sure to boost their self-esteem at every turn, telling them they could achieve whatever they set their minds to, and handing out prizes for the sixth place. 句中self-esteem意为“自尊”,大致意思就是“父母会尽量保证自己能激励孩子的自尊,告诉他们可以实现任何他们想做的事情。”B选项是这句话的同义改写。所以正选为B。


  本文原文出处:2011年12月15号 纽约时报


  56、A. To reduce medical error

  根据四个有规律的选项信息可判断这是不定式问目的的题目。先找到定位点,再在定位点附近找包含信息的不定式。根据题干信息,画出定位词“computers, smartphones and other devices”可以迅速定位到文章首段首句——“Hospitals, hoping to curb medical error, have invested heavily to put computers, smartphones and other devices into the hands of medical staff…”。其中“invested…into the hands of medical staff”就是题干“equip their staff with..”所同义改写的部分。定位句中的插入语部分“hoping to curb medical error”即要找的不定式,对比原文和选项,“curb”是抑制的意思,选项中的“reduce”是对它的同义改写,最后选A——to reduce medical error。

  57、C. The problem of devices preventing doctors from focusing on their patients.

  例证题。按题干定位词“distracted doctoring”定位在第三段。而distracted doctoring所描述的是第三段首句的“this phenomenon”,讲的是第二段中所例证的phenomenon,所以答案往上一段找。第二段首句举例说明了随之而来的“side effect”——“doctors and nurses can be focused on the screen and not the patient”、“admitted texting during a procedure”,可见作者通过说“distracted doctoring”是想说明devices的“side effect”,即C选项。

  58 、B. Doctors’ interaction with their devices may endanger patients’ lives.

  根据题干信息“Dr. Peter Papadakos”定位在文章第四段和第五段,其中都包含了DPP这个人所说的话。第四段说到把devices带到医院“to do medical records”,同时也可以上网、看脸书,而且这些会更加的“tempting”;第五段说道自己的“fut feeling”即“worry”是“lives are in danger”。总结两段的表述,devices对医生的吸引以及病人生命危在旦夕,即可选出B选项。

  59、C . Data is given too much importance in patient care.

  因果题。根据题干信息问的是“why”——原因,因此要确定找到定位点附近的因果词,判断孰因孰果选出答案。根据题干“increasing pressure”定位在文章第七段最后一行最后一句,根据金三句原则——定位句本身以及前句和后句,找到第八段首句“The pressure stems from”——“这种压力源自…”即答案在这个后面。根据这里所说的patient care must be data driven可选出答案为C。

  60、B. They focus their attention on the patient's condition.

  根据题干信息Peter Carmel以及顺序原则定位到最后一段,而对“doctors”的“advice”应该在末段末句的后半部分“but he added that doctors’ first priority should be with the patient”,即对医生的建议摆在首位的一定是“patient”,四个选项中跟patient相关的只有选项B,其他均未提及。

  第六篇:Woman and Man

  本文原文出处:2013年2月21日 华盛顿邮报


  56、C. they feel obliged to take care of their kids at home

  文章第一段大致说明了“women earn less than men”的现象,而由题干中的“traditionally”定位到文章第二段。“All the traditional reasons…women fall behind when they leave the workforce to raise kids…”,由此可选出C选项,核心原因是kids。

  57、B. It does not consider the economic impact on graduates.

  由题干信息America’s higher education system定位在第三段落最后一句“…higher education system is not designed to focus on the economic consequences of our students’ year on campus”。选项中跟economic consequences相关的选项只有B选项,“economic impact”是对原文“economic consequences”的同义改写。

  58 、A. It is different for male and female students.

  由题干的“today”定位到第四段的“now”。第四段中“… one might think the college campus is a pretty equal place. It is not.”,继而举例论证campus中男女学生的不同待遇, “They enroll in different kinds of classes…”,因此答案选A。

  59、D. They don't perform as well as they did in high school.

  文中第四段有:studies show that while girls do better than boys in high school, they start to trail off during their college years.重点在于动词词组,trail off 有渐渐减弱的意思,在这里明显是指女生到了大学后表现开始不如高中,C选项don't perform as well as they did in high school即是表示的这个意思。即使不知道trail off 的意思也可以通过句首连词while,来判断出下一句为转折关系。从而知道是在大学表现变差。

  60、A. Woman are too worn out to be ambitious.

  题干问作者对于男人女人间“pay gap”的解释,根据顺序原则定位到文章末段,最后一句“No wonder they are not negotiation for higher salaries as soon as they get out of school”的原因是“They are too exhausted, and too scared of failing”,由此对比选项,“Women are too worn out to be ambitious”是更为贴近原文主旨的选线,因此选A。

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